عنوان مقاله [English]
Ijtihad (deducing facts from Quran and Hadiths) and Ifta (delivering the legal opinions) have always been carried out in an individual form in the history of Shia jurisprudence. This study deals with "the authority and validity of the group Ijtihad and Ifta" and "getting the permission of Taqlid (following the instructions of a religious leader) from jurisprudential council". In terms of the topic, Ijtihad and Ifta are considered as specialized operations that are done in group. The examination of the evidence for authority of fatwa and the necessity of imitating the Mujtahid specially for example the conduct of intellectuals as the most important evidence suggest that the criterion for the authority exists either in the individual Ijtihad and fatwa or group Ijtihad and fatwa. Thus, the evidence for the necessity of imitating the Mujtahid proves imitating the individual as well as imitating the council. Examining the various criteria of authority for conduct of intellectuals in referring the ignorant to the religious scholar demonstrates that achieving the reality or the rational proof is considered as the most important criterion. This criterion is more possible to be accomplished in consultative Ijtihad and fatwa rather than in individual Ijtihad and fatwa.